How PCB Fabrication Changed the World of Technology

The world of technology has come a long way from its initial beginnings. The things that used to be mocked for being useless inventions have turned into the necessities that people can no longer live without. All the development in technology paved the way for the creation of better electronic devices that often have multiple functions.

A phone is no longer just a phone. It is also a calendar, a camera, a notepad, and a miniature computer all rolled into one device. What’s more, these modern devices are also more compact than their predecessors.

pcb designPCB fabrication lies at the heart of all the development in technology. The PCB or printed circuit board has given device manufacturers more space for innovation. This is because the PCB has simplified the way that the internal mechanical and electronic mechanisms of these devices function. Whereas televisions used to have bulky frames in order to make way for all the wires that connect here, there, and everywhere, nowadays TVs are small and light enough to be hung on the wall.

PCB fabrication involves the following steps:

1.Creating the schematic diagram on how the components and connections would be arranged on the circuit board.

2.Printing the design onto the board. This part can be tricky, since any error when drawing the design could mean an error in mounting the components. PCB manufacturers are also very careful not to leave any inkblots, regardless if it’s as small as a period, on the board. This is because the inkblot could possibly cause confusion when mounting the components later on.

3.Mounting all the components onto its rightful places. Some manufacturers often mount components on both sides of the board, while others prefer to utilize only one side for the components so that the other side can be stuck directly on the back panel of the device.

4.Connecting all the wires that would provide power and signal to the device. During the mounting process, it is important to ensure that the components are arranged in an organized manner in order to leave enough room for the wires or traces.

5.Doing some final checking to ensure that all the components are placed correctly. At this stage, the circuit board would be checked for signs of damage in any of the components. A single damaged component could actually mean that the entire PCB would not work.

The final stage of the PCB fabrication involves testing the PCB to make sure that it works. Most manufacturers use a voltmeter for this purpose.

Contrary to popular belief, PCB fabrication isn’t something that has to be confined within the four walls of a manufacturing company. As a matter of fact, many people have turned PCB creation into a hobby. Some enthusiasts just choose to stick within the limits of mounting the components onto the pre-printed circuit board. However, there are also a lot of enthusiasts who take the risk of creating and printing their own designs before etching it onto the circuit board.

 Some of the more popular methods for creating the design include:

1.Drawing it by hand on a piece of paper.

2.Drawing on a program in the computer.

The design would then be transferred onto the board either with the use of a clothes iron or a mixture of select chemicals. This process can be expensive and risky, which is why most PCB enthusiasts often just stick with the mounting process only. This is easy to do since people can now purchase DIY PCB kits from the nearest electronics shop. They just have to make sure that they have a soldering iron handy since this is the most important tool to be used in the assembly of the PCB components.

Issues Surrounding the Employee Engagement Survey

The employee engagement survey may be a handy tool in gauging how the employees fare in their respective jobs, but there are certain issues that prevent this from becoming a definitive measure of employee retention.

First, there is no unified definition of the term “employee engagement”. Different companies have their own spins on the employee engagement survey and thus have different perspectives on the very concept of employee engagement itself. Many progressive thinkers instead replace the word “engagement” with something that is analogous to marriage: “commitment”. If both the management and the employees are fully committed to make their working conditions better, they are fully loyal to the company’s cause of delivering better goods and services. The key to upholding commitment is the company’s exact purpose for existing.

employee engagement surveySecond, employee engagement is highly dependent on the individual moods and feelings of the employees themselves. The employee engagement survey may cover some of the moods and feelings involved, but it does not cover the many issues inside and outside the workplace that all affect the employee’s drive to work excellently. There is also the matter of some companies forcing their employees “not to bring their personal physical and emotional baggage to the office”, which should not be the case. For times like these, the survey should also be complemented with customer satisfaction surveys as well as daily monitoring of the moods of each employee. Once the superiors detect a bad mood infection, they must ask the employees the reasons for that infection and resolve them right at their many sources.

Third, the concept of employee engagement insinuates that employees are treated as tools, not human beings. Many forward-thinking companies now call their employees associates or fellows, implying that they all work together as equals for the benefit of the company. They know that in each employee, they have the potential to do big in their own little ways, whether inside or outside the company.

Fourth, some companies may be spending a lot on the employee engagement survey but actually do little to keep their employees committed and in line with their expectations. They must keep the costs of conducting such a simple survey and evaluating its results to a minimum while dedicating a considerable amount of their budget to actually improving the working conditions.

Fifth, the generational gap between corporate fresh meat and veteran employees can drive a huge wedge in the overall employee engagement status. Young employees are more like loose cannons and are the major sources of innovation, while veteran employees stick to their years-old beliefs and are highly resistant to change. Even a survey does not solve this generational gap. Besides generational gaps, there are also cultural gaps, which are more applicable to multinational companies.

Sixth, the anonymous nature of the survey means there are no clear definitions on what exactly are the problem areas to be tackled. Sure, anonymity is valued in surveys to preserve honesty, but there is a tradeoff. To ameliorate this, the survey must be complemented with a rigorous monitoring of the employees’ prevailing moods, as described above.

Seventh, managers often forget that they themselves are also part of the employee engagement puzzle. They were ordinary employees once, and they need to look at their origins in order to properly perceive what is going on with their subordinates. They also should not own the very concept of engagement or commitment.

Finally, there is the matter of ethics. While checking the individual moods and feelings of each employee is important to keep the employees in line, it may interfere with their right to privacy. The company must therefore establish a clear line between helping the organization stay in one piece and turning its employees into mindless puppets by stripping them of their individuality.

Garden City Long Island Real Estate Living

Living in one of Long Island’s quaint villages is a preferable choice for many people. After all, there are many Garden City Long Island real estate agents that sell homes and properties to people looking to live in one of Nassau County, New York’s villages. The village has a sense of history, which may interest many individuals.

The town was founded in 1869 by Alexander Turney Stewart, who was a multi-millionaire. The unincorporated village’s population as of 2010 was 22,371. The name also applies to several unincorporated villages in the region like Garden City Park, East Garden City, and Garden City South. In East Garden City lies Roosevelt Field, which was the site where Charles Lindbergh lifted off on his 1927 transatlantic flight. The Roosevelt Field Mall, a shopping center, now stands in its place.

li-realestatefinderHistory aside, the real estate listings in Garden City may cater to individuals and families with various financial backgrounds. There are listings for single family dwellings, co-op type living, and townhouses or condominiums. The prices of single family dwellings range from $369,000 to as high as $2,999,999. The prices of townhouse/condominium dwellings range from $365,000 to $2,495,000. The prices of co-op dwellings range from $172,000 to $419,000.

Garden City Long Island real estate living is possible with the many residential choices offered. One would be fascinated with the architectural designs of most single family dwellings. The mostly Colonial-style houses are very charming and would appeal to any family. One such property listed is on Ellington Avenue. This Colonial-style home, which costs $670,000, has two flags flanking the white portico. The red brick building with slate roofing has four bedrooms and three full bathrooms.

Other features of the fully-furnished home include stainless steel appliances and a new gourmet kitchen with granite countertops. The property also has an outdoor area where a family may hold weekend barbecues. The property is also accessible to a new clubhouse, which has a swimming pool and a kitchen.

A condo or townhouse is perfect for small families or for people who live solo. One high-end condo that may be considered is in Cherry Valley Avenue. The stylish condo costs about $1,065,000 and has two bedrooms, two full baths, and one half bath. Most condo complexes provide one parking space for every unit. What makes this condominium worth considering is that it is overlooking treetop views of St. Paul’s and the golf club. This condo unit is friendly to pets.

For people who seek the best in community living, co-op housing may be the best option. Co-op housing is also relatively more affordable than condominium living. One co-op housing unit up for grabs is located in Cherry Valley Avenue. This charming barn-style unit made of stucco is perfect for the solitary resident or childless couple as it has one bedroom and one full bathroom. While unfurnished, the unit already has a well-equipped kitchen with a washer, stove, and refrigerator.

Most people looking to reside in Garden City would always find what they look for. The first thing to consider is hiring the right real estate agent to help in finding one’s home. After all, living in Garden City is a dream come true for many people. Many Garden City Long Island real estate agents would be willing to help people achieve that dream.

Latest properties of long island real estate can be viewed at li-realestatefinder.

Army Custom Military Coins Have a Long and Proud History

Custom military coins for the Army are a proud tradition that dates back to World War I and possibly even before that. Military challenge coins are medallions carried by members of a military organization as proof of their membership. They have the insignia or emblem of the organization on the face, as well as its motto and other identifying symbols. The challenge coins are usually presented by a commander to his men and may be used to reward meritorious service or performance above and beyond the call of duty.

Custom military coinsCustom military coins are also given out by supporters of the military and other notable individuals as a sign of respect for the troops. In 2011, for example, Secretary of Defense Robert Gates distributed special challenge coins from his office through secret handshakes with various enlisted personnel. Presidents have also traditionally been recipients of military challenge coins, with President Bill Clinton notably displaying racks of these coins given to him on a credenza at the Oval Office during his term.

The popularity of challenge coins in the military burgeoned during the Vietnam War. They were reportedly created as alternatives to the live bullets that soldiers traditionally received as a reward for surviving a mission. The first of such coins were issued by the 10th or 11th Special Forces group and were simply ordinary coins that had been stamped with the unit insignia. Eventually, custom coins began to be created by individual units and started to be used in the infamous drinking games that challenge coins have long been associated with.

These days, custom military coins are a popular way for units to build morale as commanders present them to their men as a testament to their service. Special coins may also be given to those who have given meritorious service. Coins may also be presented to the family members of soldiers who have given their lives in the line of duty as a reminder of their valor.

Designing and minting custom military coins has become easier than it has ever been due to advanced technology which you can see in Challengecoins4less. You can simply design a coin on a computer or ask the minter’s designers to help you realize your design. Once the design has been finalized, minting the coin is relatively easy. You can have just a few coins made or order them in bulk quantities depending on your requirements.

Challenge coins can also be given a wide range of design features. For example, you can have fancy borders such as cross-cut or rope-cut styles. You can also choose from a variety of metal styles that range from gold and silver to copper and brass. And they can even be given different finishes such as polished finishes similar to those of newly-minted coins or antique finishes that make them look like heirlooms.

A challenge coin can also be in a customized shape, such as coins in the shape of shields of badges. Having coins in these distinctive shapes not only helps them to stand out but also indicates who the issuer is. The face can also have a die-cut three-dimensional design and embossed text to make the coin more attractive and highlight their resemblance to a medallion rather than an ordinary coin.

Custom military coins for the Army serve as reminders of the continuity of the proud traditions of this branch of the Armed Forces. The men who carry one of these coins can identify themselves as a proud member of the unit they served with. And, if nothing else, being able to present one of these coins might save them from having to buy their own drinks.

Using Movable Cubicle to Build a Home

You probably know by now that there are people who use movable cubicle to build their home. You must have heard that there are stores, restaurants, café, dorms, and housing projects made of portable containers. The different buildings made of container are not in the same area or country. The shipping container buildings are all over the world.

More and more people are thinking of using the metal containers to build their homes. Take a look at the advantages of turning a portable storage into a home.

Choosing a Shipping Container as a Building Material can Help the Environment

There are hundreds of metal containers around the globe. Merchants that ship their goods using the containers usually leave the containers to their destination. It is cheaper to send new containers each time they need to ship their goods than transport the empty containers back home.

Movable CubicleBuilding a home using a movable cubicle or using the container for another purpose can help the environment. Melting a metal container eats a lot of energy. Instead of wasting the said energy, architects all over the world found a better use for the metal containers, and that is to use the containers as construction material.

The Metal Container is Cost Effective

The metal container has a shape that is already suited to be a home. If you are not too particular about the kind of look that your house should have from the outside, then you just need to make a few modifications. It won’t cost too much to turn the metal container into something livable. You need to make sure that you have good insulation and ventilation to prevent your home to become a freezer at night and oven during the hot sunny day. A good paint job and special rust treatment can keep the rust away. You can also install an air conditioning unit to make it more comfortable.

If you are fine with a simple home, then you can design the whole project without any help from an architect. However, you still need a professional when it comes to anything related to electricity or plumbing. If you don’t have the expertise regarding the said areas, then it is best to let the professional handle it.

Good and Sturdy Structure

The shipping container can withstand any weather. It is created to carry heavy loads. The containers that passed the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) standards can be stacked to create a two-storey home. Always double check if the roof of the lower container is strong enough to bear the load of the upper container. Take into consideration the foot traffic and the things that you need to put in the upper container.

The movable cubicle is safe and secure. It is heavy and it will take time before someone can open the container if he has no key. Anyone who wants to break in will need a blow torch or dynamite to open the container.

Speedy Construction

A house made of shipping containers will only take a day or so to finish. It is even easier to finish a plain-looking house. If you are fine with a plain-looking house and you want to move immediately, then choose a simple house.

Although a house made of a shipping container may provide advantages there are also issues that you need to concern yourself. It is possible that the shipping container was used to transport toxic materials. You have no way of knowing if it is truly safe to use. But, you can find a reputable company that will be able to give you a container that is suitable for a home.

Obtaining a permit to build a home using a metal container might be difficult. Different areas have different requirements in obtaining a building permit using metal container as a construction material. It might take some time before you are allowed to use the container to build a home.

If you want to use a movable cubicle to build your house, it is prudent to start gathering information about the things that you need to secure first before the construction begins. Weight things first and determine if it’s really the one you want before getting yourself into something that you might find hard to get out of.

Problems in using HCG drops and injections

The use of HCG drops has been so much controversial as it can lead to many problematic situations that are unbearable by those who are using the HCG drops. The HCG drops can take a person to a very low level of energy and can cause slowing down of certain brain functions as well as physical activity is impaired in many conditions. It is because of low level of energy present within the body inhibiting the body to function normally. In females the hormone if administered for weight loss there are certain problems that have reported including pelvic pain, vomiting feelings of depression and nausea or in severe cases heart attack.

best hcg dropsIn such a busy life we have zero moment for our health and a problem in one’s life is the obesity and we are always in the verge to find such methods to reduce obesity that demands less consumption of time. Methods including intake of best hcg drops is popular  especially and specifically  for pregnant women. It controls the metabolic rate in the body and prevents the maternity problems like temporary diabetes. HCG is a natural element but cam be infused  artificially in a human body to lessen the amount of weight  in any individual’s body .As suggested by the by Dr A.T Simeons  intake of HCG is possible through two ways ;by taking in drops or shots of it along with a special order of daily food consumption.

Method of Using HCG drops

I oft-quoted that intake of HCG is easy and consists of two methods so it’s up to you whether you want to heal yourself through drops or through shots frequently known as the infusion by injection .If you want to reduce weight by first method then you have to give a full detail and the dream weight you always wanted to gain to the dietician who will then plan your diet according your present weight .You have to be very punctual throughout the session which will start from one and last to twenty three days  demanding intake of three drops daily .But if you are following the second method then again there should be no gap during the twenty three days session comprising of one injection having 125 IU of the artificial hormone. The thing with which you should be very careful and regarding which there is no space for any mishap is the time of medicinal intake. So be regular and within days you will see difference in yourself.

Digital Signage and its Advantages

Traditional means of communication like posters, banners, and billboards are becoming near obsolete because of the fast emergence of more advanced communication media. One medium that is now widely used in almost all venues, replacing posters and billboards, is digital signage. Big companies, airports, hotels, restaurants, schools, shopping malls, retail stores, and even individuals, now make use of digital displays to communicate information within their institution or to the public. These electronic displays are also used for outdoor advertising.

Why use digital signage instead of posters and billboards or other forms of static signage? This is because it has many advantages compared to the conventional static communication channels. Let’s take a look at some of these advantages.

Cost Effective

Digital SignageThe initial cost of setting up a digital signage may be much higher than a single print ad but in the long run, you’d actually save more money. You need to continuously change or update communication, and creating a new poster or billboard for each new update or event will cost you money each time. Chances are, if a mistake was made on the print, it would be very difficult to correct that, and it’s mostly likely for you to double your expenses to make a new one. Aside from spending too much money, you also spend and waste a lot of your time and energy.

Quality and Quantity of Content

It is a challenge to put all information you want to communicate in a poster or a billboard and people are also not likely to read all the details especially if there’s too much in it. With digital displays you can input as much information you need and provide details without having to sacrifice the quality of your communication content. You are not limited to space unlike your posters and other forms of print ads.


The animated images and text, high definition multimedia interface, uncompressed audio and video streaming makes electronic communication more impacting than static signage. With excellent communication content, digital displays are able to hold viewer’s attention. Watching and listening to these digital communication also tends to be more entertaining to the public.

Timely Update of Information

You can easily remove, change, and update information on your digital signage by simply clicking your mouse. You can present an all new information or event on the digital screen in just a few hours. Perfect example of digital displays where you can see quick and real time updates are those you see in airports, where you are given updates on flight schedules and status. You can also see the digital menu displays in restaurants that are changed and updated.

Technical Expertise

You don’t need to be an IT expert or a computer genius to be able to create a digital ad or communication. You simply need to have the hardware and software required and the ability to make a well-organized and effective communication content that will be presented on your digital screens.

These are basically just some of the advantages of using digital displays. And these are also the reasons why it has become very popular to many big companies and institutions. It’s definitely cost and time saving, more impacting and entertaining, more interactive, and it is able to generate feedback and response from the public faster.

If you are not very familiar or knowledgeable with the process and steps of creating this advanced method of communication, there are many websites available that can help you. If you’re using MAC, you can check Mediasignpro online. This is an online site that can provide you the hardware and software you need for your digital signage.

Things You Should Keep in Mind When Buying Custom Lanyards

If the time has come for you to buy custom lanyards for your organization or company, there are things that you should keep in mind when buying your new supplies. These lanyards are available in different designs, which makes it hard to decide which type of lanyard is best for you. That said, here are the factors that you need to consider when buying lanyards.

Style and How Long Your Lanyard Should Be

As mentioned above, custom lanyards are available in various styles, so there are lots to choose from. Flat braid and round braid lanyards are the most popular, so if you prefer something simple, these two styles are the perfect choice.  If you prefer an eco-friendly type of lanyards, then you can choose those that are made of recycled plastic or the one made of bamboo.

Custom LanyardsChoose the OptiWeave and Optibraid lanyards if you need to detach your ID badge, or other object from your lanyard while still wearing it. For events to show your support for several causes like cancer, reflective lanyards are what you need to promote safety. You can also choose the beaded and the imitation leather lanyards if you choose something a little bit more stylish.

You will likewise want to consider the width and length of your lanyards. The standard length of a lanyard is 36 inches, while the normal widths are 5/8” and 3/8”.

Break away or Non-Breakaway Lanyards

Lanyards are available in either non-breakaway or break-away styles. The breakaway custom lanyards are much safer to wear as compared to their non-breakaway counterparts. If the lanyards are caught on something or grabbed by someone, the breakaway clasp opens so the user won’t get injured. If safety is very important in your workplace, you should choose the breakaway lanyards. This type of clasps is very important for use in schools, hospitals and secure facilities like prisons and court houses.

The End of your Lanyards

The lanyard end needs a finishing touch. The end can be sewn, have beads on it, or be crimped. For crimped-end lanyards, you can choose a black oxide crimp or nickel-plated crimp. Pick the one that you like best.

The Lanyard Attachments

To attach your ID card or your badge to your lanyard, you need some sort of attachment. There are several different styles of attachments to choose from. The two simplest types are the lanyard hook and the split key ring attachment. Other types of attachment include swivel hooks, cell phone hooks, and bulldog clips. OptiWeave and Optibraid lanyards have their own kind of attachments that include a cell phone holder as well as other cool choices.

Other Things to Consider

In choosing your lanyard, there are important decisions that you need to make, such as deciding on the color. For custom lanyards, you will need to decide if your lanyards will show text, graphics or both or maybe none of those. You will need to decide if you choose the lanyards to be silk-screened or not. If you prefer others, you can choose the dye sub imprinting. If you prefer the OptiBraid lanyards, you can choose between two different designs of sliders – round and diamond. And lastly, price is always an important factor. Choose the best quality lanyards that fit your budget. If you do that, you will be less likely to need to replace your brand new custom lanyards anytime soon.

Now you know the things that you need to consider when purchasing lanyards, you will not have a hard time choosing the right lanyards. One additional tip that you might consider, if you want to further reduce the price, is to order your lanyards in bulk.